Tripp Underwood contributed to this post.
Families with peanut-allergic children live in fear that their child will ingest peanuts—even minute amounts—accidentally. Now, a small pilot study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology offers hope.
In the year-long study, immunologist Dale Umetsu, MD, PhD, and colleagues in the Division of Allergy and Immunology at Boston Children’s Hospital were able to get some children to tolerate as many as 20 peanuts at a time. Their protocol combines a powerful anti-allergy medication with a methodical desensitization process.
While it’s not a cure, the protocol may enable children to weather trace amounts of peanuts that might lurk in baked goods or foods “manufactured in a facility that processes peanuts.” Even a small amount of peanut tolerance could be lifesaving. Full story »
Despite recent national pediatric guidelines recommending identification and treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolemia, the use of lipid-lowering treatment has been flat over the past decade in real-world pediatric practice, finds a large multicenter study.
Justin Zachariah, MD, MPH, a pediatric cardiologist at Boston Children’s Hospital, presented the findings this week at the 2013 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions. He believes they dispel some critiques of the recent guidelines, particularly concerns that more screening would result in overmedicating the pediatric population.
Extending beyond 2008 recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the 2011 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s pediatric guidelines call for universal lipid screening and medical treatment for children at highest risk for early cardiovascular disease. One such high-risk condition is familial hypercholesterolemia, a genetic disorder characterized by high blood cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad” cholesterol) and early coronary events. Full story »
New research reinforces that inborn vulnerabilities can tip infants toward SIDS.
Epidemiologic studies have shown that infants who die suddenly, unexpectedly and without explanation—what’s referred to as sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS—are often found sleeping face down with their face in the pillow, or sleeping next to an adult. These are environments that have the potential to cause smothering and asphyxiation. By advising parents to have infants sleep on their backs, in a separate crib or bed, the government’s Safe to Sleep
campaign (formerly known as Back to Sleep) has greatly reduced deaths from SIDS.
Hannah Kinney, MD, a neuropathologist at Boston Children’s Hospital, is clear that this campaign must go forward—it’s saved thousands of lives. But still, she receives calls from parents and grandparents haunted by their infants’ death, feeling at fault and wanting a second opinion.
And in many cases, she has been able to document abnormalities in brainstem circuits that help control breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep.
What’s lacking is early detection and treatment. Full story »
Malaria presents a formidable global challenge. It affects more than 200 million people worldwide every year, and more than 1 million people die from it, primarily pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years. Resistance to existing anti-malarial medications is a constant, and vaccines have not proven effective. But the disease also presents a unique opportunity for researchers to uncover innovative solutions. As a result, even the cash-conscious National Institutes of Health (NIH) is investing in malaria research.
Boston Children’s Hospital physician Jeffrey Dvorin, MD, PhD, recently received a High-Risk, High-Reward New Innovator Award from the NIH. The award is reserved for early-stage investigators whose research has potential for significant impact, but who may lack enough data for a traditional NIH R01 grant. Dvorin will use the $1.5 million, five-year grant to pursue research that could lead to new tools to combat malaria.
The challenges of treating malaria begin at the molecular level. To develop new anti-malarial tools, the research community needs to understand how the parasite replicates. Determining which genes are essential to parasite replication could provide the data needed to develop new medications or an effective vaccine. But scientists have not yet determined functions for more than half of the 5,500 genes in Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the majority of malaria infections in Africa. Full story »
There’s been an explosion of scientific research in autism—from mouse models of genetic syndromes involving autism to culturing neurons from stem cells derived from patients’ skin to tracking EEG patterns in infants whose brothers or sisters have autism.
So I expected yesterday’s panel on Piecing Together the Autism Puzzle, part of Boston Children’s National Pediatric Innovation Summit, to be about the science. I changed my seat just before it started, so I could better view the slides.
Instead, the conversation turned to the insurance, public health and social justice aspects of autism. Take, for example, the rising incidence of autism, which the CDC places at 1 in 88 (and 1 in 54 in boys). Panelist Ami Klin, PhD, director of the Marcus Autism Center at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, noted that between the CDC’s 2002 and 2008 reports on autism, there was close to a 101 percent increase in autism prevalence in Hispanics and a 96 percent increase in blacks.
Thousands of children didn’t suddenly develop autism in a six-year span; rather, more were diagnosed with autism as awareness of the disease increased. Even so, diagnoses often don’t occur until a child is 3 to 5 year old, and only 2.5 percent of diagnostic assessments of autism are using the field’s best standardized tools. While multiple diagnostic tests are being researched—like EEGs or blood tests looking at gene expression—they’re still experimental. Full story »
A robust, reproducible vaccine with low risk of side effects is hard to come by. A new design strategy could balance the benefits and risks of different vaccine approaches while making them as easy to build as Legos. (seanmichaelragan/Flickr)
A good vaccine should confer robust, long-lasting immunity against a given pathogen without causing side effects. Striking this balance has fueled a long-standing debate over whole-cell and acellular vaccines.
Whole-cell vaccines rely on killed or weakened pathogens. Acellular or subunit vaccines contain only defined sets of antigens known to stimulate an effective immune response against the pathogen in question.
Both approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. Whole-cell vaccines carry a bacterium’s full complement of antigens and can activate many arms of the immune system at once. And they are inexpensive to manufacture. But these vaccines can be hard to reproduce and run the risk of causing frequent or serious side effects.
Acellular vaccines are very reproducible and run a much lower risk of side effects. But the immune responses they trigger aren’t as robust or durable, as evidenced by the recent failures of the acellular pertussis vaccines.
What if you could bring together the effectiveness of a whole-cell vaccine and the safety and reproducibility of an acellular one? That’s what Boston Children’s Hospital’s Fan Zhang, PhD, Yingjie Lu, PhD, and Richard Malley, MD, want to do with the Multiple Antigen Presenting System, or MAPS. Full story »
Obesity is more common among children with sickle cell disease than thought. Why?
Ask many doctors about their image of a child with sickle cell disease (SCD)
, and they’ll describe a short, skinny child, perhaps almost malnourished. For decades, that image was accurate.
That perception needs to change, though. A group of sickle cell specialists from hospitals in New England—members of the 11 institutions in the New England Pediatric Sickle Cell Consortium (NEPSCC)—recently made a surprising observation: Nearly a quarter of children with SCD are overweight or obese. The question is, why?
The answer may start with their red blood cells (RBCs). Full story »
Cost-effectiveness ratios for many surgical procedures are comparable to those for accepted global public health strategies.
While moral arguments have been made to bring surgical treatments to resource-poor countries, researchers from Boston Children’s Hospital have discovered that it also may be cost-effective.
Traditionally, global health initiatives have focused on infectious disease or HIV/AIDS outreach. However, more recent data, including a 2012 study in The Lancet, show a growing global burden of noncommunicable diseases, such as cancer, that require surgical treatment.
Surgical disease was previously thought to comprise at least 11 percent of the total global burden of disease, but the Lancet paper showed approximately 25 percent of people requiring surgical assessment, based on a widespread survey in Sierra Leone. Additional research has revealed that up to 85 percent of pediatric patients in Africa have a surgical condition by the age of 15 years.
“However, the prevailing perception is that surgical care is too expensive and not cost-effective enough to bring to developing countries,” states Tiffany E. Chao, MD, a Paul Farmer Global Surgery Fellow in the Plastic and Oral Surgery Department at Boston Children’s. Full story »