spina bifida myelomeningocele

Prenatal cell therapy could avoid the need for invasive surgery to repair myelomeningocele.

The neural tube, which becomes the spinal cord and brain, is supposed to close during the first month of prenatal development. In children with spina bifida, it doesn’t close completely, leaving the nerves of the spinal cord exposed and subject to damage. The most common and serious form of spina bifida, myelomeningocele, sets a child up for lifelong disability, causing complications such as hydrocephalus, leg paralysis, and loss of bladder and bowel control.

New research from Boston Children’s Hospital, though still in animal models, suggests that standard amniocentesis, followed by one or more injections of cells into the womb, could be enough to at least partially repair spina bifida prenatally.

Currently, the standard procedure is to operate on infants soon after delivery. Full story »

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Alina Morris, Archivist, Boston Children’s Hospital, contributed to this post.

In 1914, Boston Children’s Hospital, then simply called The Children’s Hospital, constructed the 145-bed Hunnewell Building, joining Harvard Medical School as one of several founding members of the Longwood Medical Area.

As the hospital’s oldest continuously occupied building, Hunnewell has presided over many of the century’s great medical advances and innovations. We celebrate a portion of them in this slideshow honoring Hunnewell’s 100th anniversary—and invite you to help write the next 100 years of history October 30-31 at Boston Children’s Global Pediatric Innovation Summit + Awards 2014.

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Surgical Sam beating heart pediatric trainer mannequin simulation Simulator Program The Chamberlain GroupWe often see medical magic in Hollywood, but it’s not often we see Hollywood magic brought into medicine. Now, Boston Children’s Hospital’s Simulator Program and special-effects collaborators at The Chamberlain Group (TCG) have done just that.

Simulation has become a key component in team training, crisis management, surgical practice and other medical training activities. With simulation, medical teams can add to and hone their skills in an environment where people can make mistakes without risking patient harm—”practicing before game time,” says Boston Children’s critical care specialist Peter Weinstock, MD, PhD, who runs the Simulator Program.

Mannequins are a key part of simulation, and Weinstock’s team, working together with companies, designers and engineers, has developed eerily lifelike ones that can bleed and “respond” to interventions based on computer commands from a technician.

But there are some things Weinstock’s mannequins haven’t been able to capture up to now, like the movements of a beating heart.

That’s where TCG and a new mannequin called Surgical Sam come in. Full story »

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Three teenagers wearing hospital masks flu influenza healthmap social media twitter digital epidemiology digital disease detectionElaine Nsoesie, PhD, is a research fellow at Boston Children’s Hospital’s HealthMap, Harvard Medical School and Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. In this post, which originally appeared on HealthMap’s Disease Daily, Nsoesie looks at the trend of detecting disease digitally by monitoring mentions on social media. She delves into one of the major limitations of this technique—namely telling those who are curious about a disease apart from those who actually have it.

There are plenty of studies about tracking diseases (such as influenza) using digital data sources, which is awesome! However, many of these studies focus solely on matching the trends in the digital data sources (for example, searches on disease-related terms, or how frequently certain disease-related terms are mentioned on social media over time, etc.) to data from official sources such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although this approach is useful in telling us about the possible utility of these data, there are several limitations. One of the main limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between data generated by healthy individuals and individuals who are actually sick. In other words, how can we tell whether someone who searches Google or Wikipedia for influenza is sick or just curious about the flu?

Researchers at Penn State University have developed a system that seeks to deal with this limitation. We spoke to the lead author, Todd Bodnar, about the study titled, On the Ground Validation of Online Diagnosis with Twitter and Medical Records. Full story »

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music and executive functionMy daughter just surprised me by signing up for fifth grade band starting this fall. To my further delight, some new research—using both cognitive testing and brain imaging—suggests that as she practices her clarinet, she also may be honing her executive functions.

Like a CEO who’s on top of her game, executive functions—separate from IQ—are those high-level brain functions that enable us to quickly process and retain information, curb impulsive behaviors, plan, make good choices, solve problems and adjust to changing cognitive demands. While it’s already clear that musical training relates to cognitive abilities, few previous studies have looked at its effects on executive functions specifically.

The study, appearing this week in PLOS ONE, compared children with and without regular musical training, as well as adults. To the researchers’ knowledge, it’s the first such study to use functional MRI (fMRI) of brain areas associated with executive function and to adjust for socioeconomic factors. Full story »

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Bioengineered blood vessels

A bioengineered network of blood vessels

Juan Melero-Martin, PhD, runs a cell biology and bioengineering lab in the department of Cardiac Surgery at Boston Children’s Hospital. In May, he received an Early Career Investigator Award from Bayer HealthCare, part of the prestigious Bayer Hemophilia Award.

In 1982, insulin became the first FDA-approved protein drug created through recombinant DNA technology. It was made by inserting the human insulin gene into a bacterial cell’s DNA, multiplying the bacteria and capturing and purifying the human insulin in bioreactors. Full story »

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Classic Penfield motor homunculus could be different in soccer playersOne of my very favorite images in science, Dr. Wilder Penfield’s classic motor homunculus, shows how much brain real estate is devoted to controlling movement of different parts of the body. Notice the huge hands and the tiny feet. As the World Cup gets underway, soccer fan Jeffrey Holt, PhD, also a Boston Children’s Hospital neuroscientist, writes that soccer is more than just a great sport, it’s “a triumphant display of the incredible plasticity of the human brain… because the soccer player is limited by one simple rule: no hands!”

Though no one’s actually taken a look, Holt imagines that the brains of great soccer players like Cristiano Ronaldo, Lionel Messi or Neymar would have much expanded neural representation of the feet. Read more in his post on WBUR-Boston’s Cognoscenti blog.

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John Kheir, MD, first envisioned an injectable form of oxygen eight years ago, the night one of his patients, a nine-month-old girl, died after catastrophic lung failure. Kheir, a cardiac intensive care specialist at Boston Children’s Hospital, spoke last night to WBZ-TV’s Mallika Marshall, MD, about his efforts to try to buy precious time for children whose lungs stop working:

Want to know more? Read Kheir’s own words about his hopes and challenges for intravenous oxygen in a post he penned for Vector.

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Mila-cap-ball-2014-05-08 12.24.14Is 9-month-old Mila Goshgarian at risk for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Her 4-year-old twin brothers are both on the spectrum, so statistically her chances are at least 20 percent.

Her mother, Tonia, brought her into Boston Children’s Hospital for the Infant Sibling Project, which works with babies who are at increased risk of developing ASD in hopes of discovering early brain biomarkers for the disorder. This is Mila’s fifth visit; she’s been coming to the Labs of Cognitive Neuroscience for testing since the age of 3 months. Full story »

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fountain of youth stem cellsThis post is condensed from a report from the Harvard Stem Cell Institute.

The liver has been a model of tissue regeneration for decades, and it’s well known that a person’s liver cells can duplicate in response to injury. Even if three-quarters of the liver is surgically removed, duplication alone can return the organ to its normal functioning mass. It’s why people are able to donate part of their liver to someone in need—like this mother to her son who was born with biliary atresia.

But what about people with more chronic liver damage? Researchers led by Fernando Camargo, PhD, of the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and Boston Children’s Hospital’s Stem Cell Program, have new evidence in mice that it may be possible to repair such liver disease by forcing mature liver cells to turn back the clock and revert to a stem cell-like state, able to generate functional liver progenitor cells to replace damaged tissue. Full story »

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