In 1982, insulin became the first FDA-approved protein drug created through recombinant DNA technology. It was made by inserting the human insulin gene into a bacterial cell’s DNA, multiplying the bacteria and capturing and purifying the human insulin in bioreactors. Full story »
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Seeing that his mother, Kadriye, wasn’t looking, Emir Seyrek got an impish grin on his face, the kind only a two-year-old can have. He quietly dumped his bowl of dry cereal out on his bed and, with another quick look towards his mother, proceeded to pulverize the flakes to dust with his toy truck. The rest of the room burst out laughing while his mother scolded him. Despite the scolding, though, the impish grin remained.
It was hard to believe that he arrived from Turkey six months earlier fighting a host of bacterial and viral infections. Emir was born with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a genetic immunodeficiency that left him with a defective immune system. He was here because he was the first patient—of two so far—to take part in an international trial of a new gene therapy treatment for WAS at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. And that day he was having his final checkup at Boston Children’s Hospital’s Clinical and Translational Study Unit before going home. Full story »
This post is adapted from a commentary in this week’s edition of Science by Jeffrey R. Holt, PhD, and Gwenaelle S. G. Géléoc, PhD, of the Department of Otolaryngology and F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital.
Hearing loss affects more than 300 million people worldwide, making it the most common sensory disorder. While there are no cures, recent efforts to develop biological treatments for hearing loss provide reason for cautious optimism. Three strategies—gene therapy, stem cells and drugs—have shown encouraging results in animal models, poising them for translation into potential therapies for humans.
Hearing loss can arise from many different causes, so it is unlikely that a single “magic bullet” will be developed to treat all forms of deafness. Rather, each individual cause may require a tailored and specific treatment strategy. Full story »
One of these children, Joshua Frase, succumbed to MTM on Christmas Eve, 2010. The son of former NFL player Paul Frase, he lived to age 15. But his parents, who continue to actively support MTM research, now see a glimmer of hope for children born with the disease today.
A preclinical study on the cover of last week’s Science Translational Medicine, funded in part by the Joshua Frase Foundation, showed dramatic improvements in muscle strength using gene replacement therapy in mouse and dog models of MTM—paving the way for a potential clinical trial. Full story »
Last week, researchers at the University of Massachusetts published a fascinating and important study on Down syndrome in Nature. Lisa Hall, PhD, Jeanne Lawrence, PhD, and their colleagues were able to effectively “shut down” the gene activity of one of the three copies of the 21st chromosome in cells with trisomy 21.
What exactly did they do? The research team started with skin cells from a man with trisomy 21 that were transformed into induced pluripotent stem cells—cells that act like cells from an embryo and can develop into different cell types. They then took a gene from the X chromosome that is responsible for making sure that only one X chromosome is active in females—the X-inactivation gene—and inserted it in a specific location on chromosome 21. Full story »
This two-part series examines two potential treatment approaches for myotubular myopathy, a genetic disorder that causes muscle weakness from birth.
Sixth-grader William Ward cruises the hallways at school with a thumb-driven power chair and participates in class with the help of a DynaVox speech device. Although born with a rare, muscle-weakening disease called X-linked myotubular myopathy, or MTM, leaving him virtually immobile, he hasn’t given up.
“From the very beginning, Alan connected with our family in a very human way,” says Will’s mother, Erin Ward. “In the scientific community, he’s been the bridge and the connector of researchers around the world. That makes him unique.”
Since the 1990s, Beggs has enrolled more than 500 patients with congenital myopathies from all over the world in genetic studies, seeking causes and potential treatments for congenital myopathies—rare, often fatal diseases that weaken children’s skeletal muscles from birth, often requiring them to breathe on a ventilator and to receive food through a gastrostomy tube. Full story »
For the Cáceres family of Argentina, it’s a joyous holiday homecoming. Agustín, who received gene therapy at 5½ months of age, journeyed with his family to Boston for a check-up and got a clean bill of health.
Agustín was born with the rare immune-deficiency disorder SCID-X1. More popularly known as “bubble boy” disease, it left him defenseless against infections, unable to make enough T-cells to fight them off. His baptism was the only time his family could come near him, all wearing masks, gloves and gowns. His infancy was spent in isolation with his mother.
Now, at age 2½, Agustín has been cleared to go to nursery school, ride a bus and attend large family gatherings without fear of contracting a life-threatening infection. When we caught up with him, he was chasing and tumbling with his older brother Jeremías while waiting to bid farewell to his care team. Full story »
About a decade ago, David Williams, MD, set out to solve a problem. The chief of Dana-Farber/Children’s Hospital Cancer Center’s Hematology/Oncology division wanted to treat Fanconi anemia (FA)—a rare, inherited bone marrow failure disease—using gene therapy. In the process, he’d be able to replace patients’ faulty bone marrow cells with ones corrected for the genetic defect that causes FA.
There was one big problem though. “The main bar to attempting gene therapy in FA is that you need to be able to collect a certain number of blood stem cells from a patient in order to be able to give enough corrected cells back,” he says. “In our early clinical trials, we were unable to provide enough corrected stem cells to reverse the bone marrow failure we see in these patients.”
One way around the supply issue would be to create the necessary blood stem cells from FA patients’ own cells by first reprogramming skin cells into what are called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Using one of several methods, scientist can reboot mature skin cells into an immature, stem cell-like state—essentially turning the cells’ biological clocks back to a time when they could grow into anything the body might need. Full story »
If there’s anything that tumors are good at, it’s hiding themselves. Not from things like MRIs or CT scans, mind you, but from the immune system. Since a tumor grows from what were at one time normal, healthy cells it’s still “self,” still one of the tissues that makes you you.
“Tumor cells display very subtle differences that distinguish them from healthy cells, but by and large they look the same to your immune system,” says Mark Kieran, a pediatric neuro-oncologist at the Dana-Farber/Children’s Hospital Cancer Center and Children’s Hospital’s Vascular Biology Program. “The question is: How can we unmask tumors so that the immune system can do its job?”
Researchers have worked for years on cancer vaccines aimed at getting the immune system to wake up to the presence of a tumor and turn on it. With a Phase 1 safety trial , Kieran and his colleagues, including Children’s neurosurgical oncologist Lily Goumnerova, are evaluating a different strategy for patients with hard-to-treat brain tumors called malignant gliomas: They’re giving the tumors a cold. Full story »
Sound waves produce the sensation of hearing by vibrating hair-like structures on the inner ear’s sensory hair cells. But how this mechanical motion gets converted into electrical signals that go to our brains has long been a mystery.
Scientists have believed some undiscovered protein is involved. Such proteins have been identified for taste, smell and sight, but the protein required for hearing has been elusive. In part, that’s because it’s hard to get enough cells from the inner ear to study – they’re embedded deep in the cochlea.
“People have been looking for more than 30 years,” says Jeffrey Holt of the department of otolaryngology at Children’s Hospital Boston. “Five or six possibilities have come up, but didn’t pan out.”
Last week, in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, team led by Holt and Andrew Griffith, of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), demonstrated that two related proteins, TMC1 and TMC2, are essential for normal hearing – paving the way for a test of gene therapy to reverse a type of genetic deafness. Full story »